Pregnancy occurs when an egg is fertilized by a sperm to form a zygote. It happens after a woman undergoes ovulation in which an egg (or multiple eggs) releases from the ovary somewhere midway around a menstrual cycle.

The egg after fertilization, travels to the uterus where it settles itself. The attachment of the fertilized egg in the uterus is known as implantation and this marks the onset of pregnancy. The complete span of a healthy pregnancy ranges between 37-42 weeks.

Pregnancy is generally divided into three trimesters according to the number of weeks. The first twelve weeks from the first day of the last period counts for the first trimester. From week 13 till week 26, the pregnancy is considered to be in the second trimester. The last trimester ranges from week 27 till the end of pregnancy.

This division helps track the developmental milestones of the fetus inside the womb and is crucial for tracking any developmental problem/ delay.

Pregnancy is a life changing experience for most of the women around the globe with hormonal and bodily changes that are different than any other situation. In this article we will be listing down the early signs of pregnancy. Other than that, these questions follow:

1.      What a pregnant woman is supposed to eat?

2.      Is staying active in pregnancy adverse?

3.      When to see the doctor during pregnancy?

Early signs:

Early signs of pregnancy range from nausea to constipation. There’s no fixed rule for early pregnancy signs but the most common signs include:

·         Nausea

·         Backache

·         Unexplained weakness

·         Bloating

·         Shortness of breath

·         Diarrhea

·         Constipation

·         Heaviness of breasts

·         Pigmentation of areolas.

Moving to the next part, here we answer the first question.

1.      What a pregnant woman is supposed to eat?

Unlike popular opinion, a woman doesn’t need to stuff herself up with everything and anything. Choosing healthy eating over binge eating is important. After all, the post-partum flabs are hard to get rid of.

A pregnant woman should focus on having proper meals that include whole grains, vegetables and fruits. A good protein intake is essential for a perfectly growing baby inside.

There are foods that should be avoided such as pineapple and papaya. The chemical composition of such foods may harm the fetus.

2.      Is staying active in pregnancy adverse?

No, it is not as far as a pregnant woman is not overdoing it. Carrying out the routine activities is completely fine. There are prenatal exercise regimes that can be followed to stay fit during pregnancy. The only thing a pregnant woman needs to remember is to avoid exertion.

3.      When to see the doctor during pregnancy?

The doctors schedule pregnant women’s hospital visits. The scans are performed to check all the baby growth milestones on weeks such as 22-23.

In emergency cases such as a bleeding episode or a water bag leakage towards the end of pregnancy needs an urgent call to action.

There are countless other questions that arise in the minds of parents-to-be. The most important part of a pregnancy is to stay put and not over-stressing oneself. Keeping all the fetal milestones in check can cut a lot of hassle.

Every one of us is well familiar with the term headache for sure. Headache is the most known health disorder both in men and women of every age. We all face this problem or health issue as it’s common in adults and teenagers.

What if frequent headaches become a permanent part of your life? It is really painful as you can’t concentrate on anything properly when you feel a headache. Are you intimate with the word migraine? If yes then you are likely to know more about it and if not don’t worry at all as in this article we will throw light on different aspects of migraine.



What is migraine?

Migraine is a kind of headache that causes debilitating pain. It can cause severe pain or pulsing sensation. The pain usually begins in the forehead, around the eyes or side of the head. It can get worse when it lasts for a long time and hurts more with any movement, bright light, loud voice or activity.

It can interfere with your daily routine when it gets worse. Migraine runs in families and affects all ages.

What causes migraine?

Experts are still unable to find out the real cause of migraine however the most relevant or prominent cause is probably the family history of migraine.

Common causes of migraine may include:

  • Stress or tension.
  • Gene (family history or genetic factors)
  • Certain changes in the brain.
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Bright light
  • Weather changes (environmental factors)
  • Strong smells
  • Secondhand smoke

Types of migraine:

There are various types of migraine but here we will discuss only two main types:

  1. Migraine with aura
  2. Migraine without aura

The term migraine with aura usually refers to the pain which is accompanied by the change in vision. It’s further divided into migraine aura and retinal migraine. Migraine aura isn’t that serious and can be cured easily. But retinal aura really means something serious.

Migraine without aura also called silent migraine doesn’t carry the risk of strokes as migraine patients don’t experience aura. The headache in this form usually is on one side of the heat.


Migraine is totally different from typical headaches and it has different symptoms when compared to headache. Migraine may appear with following symptoms:

  • Headache that becomes severe due to some physical activity
  • Increased sensitivity to light and noise
  • Inability to perform daily physical activities
  • Eye pain
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Pounding pain usually on one side of head


Different painkillers may prove helpful against migraine but no medication should be used without consulting a doctor. So you better see your doctor and ask for the best reliable treatment that may not harm your health.

Safety precautions:

  1. Take proper rest.
  2. Heat packs may relax tensed muscles.
  3. Eat healthy.
  4. Eat foods such as orange, green vegetables, brown rice and cooked or dried fruits such especially cherries and cranberries.
  5. Avoid loud noise or bright light.
  6. Avoid stress or tensions.
  7. Sleep on a regular schedule.
  8. Avoid foods that trigger migraines such as chocolate, caffeine, cheese or alcohol.
  9. Take healthy and calming exercises on daily bases to prevent migraine.
  10. See a doctor if the situation gets worse.

About 75% to 80% of the United States’ population is facing back pain according to American Association of Neurological surgeons. And 50% of those are having this disorder for years without being diagnosed.

Back pain isn’t easy to deal with but it can be cured if given proper treatment. Before moving on let’s first list out key points which we are going to discuss in this article:



What is back pain?                                                       

Almost every one of us face this health issue called back pain occasionally in our lives due to several reasons.

Back pain commonly occurs due to tension, injury or strain. It can also range in intensity from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp or severe pain or it may result from an unexpected accident and different medical problems.

Types of back pain:

There are many types of back pain and a wide range of treatments which work differently for different forms. Back pain can be uniquely different and complex and consequences may vary from person to person. Different types of back pain are as follows:

  • Axial pain
  • Referred pain
  • Radicular pain

Axial pain:

Axial pain also called mechanical pain or low back pain is confined to the low back area. It can be felt constantly and the pain can range from mild to severe. Unlike other back pains it doesn’t travel into the buttocks, legs, feet or other areas of the body.


  • Pain in lower back
  • Weaker tissues
  • Facet joint issues
  • Weak ligaments
  • Tendon problem


With the time symptoms get better, patients with axial or lower back pain get recovered within a few weeks. However following measures may prove helpful for the patients:

  • 1 or 2 day rest.
  • Exercise or physical therapy.
  • Proper medication for pain relief.
  • Ice or heat application for relieving pain.

Referred pain:

Back pain is termed as referred pain when it is caused by some accident or severe injuries. Injured pancreas usually develops pain in the back or jaw.

When the body experiences pain, the nervous system sends signals to the brain. Brain then forwards signals to the body and the brain may wire signals in different parts of the body instead of sending signals to the area from where pain actually is stemmed. Then any part of the body feels pain that isn’t even injured.


Referred pain can’t be managed or treated without being diagnosed. It’s best to consult a good healthcare provider when you feel serious pain signs that may lead to heart attack, death or other fatal consequences.

Following precautions may be helpful for relieving referred pain:

  • Take proper rest without disturbing the injured area or the area where you feel pain.
  • Use a warm compress to ease muscles.
  • To release muscle pain or tension, take a bath with Epsom salt.

Radicular pain:

Radicular pain travels through the spinal nerve root and goes into the back, legs and hips. It usually occurs when the spinal nerve gets pinched.


  • Numbness
  • Burning pain
  • Weakness
  • Lack of sensation
  • Weak muscles


You should see a health expert when you observe symptoms of radicular pain. Following treatments may be helpful for patients with particular disorders:

  • Proper medication
  • Epidural injections
  • Physical therapies etc.

Before getting into the term child obesity we must have to get familiar with the word obesity. What is obesity? Is it a serious health problem? Is obesity just a beauty concern or something more than that? What are the risk factors of obesity?

Well obesity is a serious health disorder that is the root cause of all other ailments or diseases. Fitness is not just a beauty concern, it’s an essential health concern that saves you from many fatal diseases.

Obesity in itself is a fatal disease that for a number of times leads one to heart disease or heart attack and many other health disorders.

Now let us throw a brief light on the main or basic concern of this article. We have discussed briefly about obesity but here in this article we are going to discuss child obesity in particular.



What is child obesity?

Obesity is a serious or complex disease with an excessive amount of fat in the body. It’s not limited to any age or phase as it can affect any person at any stage of life.

Child obesity is a medical problem where children gain more weight than the normal range of their age or height. This disease or health issue can result in poor health and other risk factors.

Childhood or child obesity is troubling much because the extra fat in children’s bodies start taking them to the condition where they face many health disorders that are linked generally with adults.

Is child obesity risky?

Child obesity is a serious health problem that puts children in a risk for poor health or it can even prove life threatening too.

The rate of obesity in children is alarmingly high in many countries including the United States as well.

Causes of child obesity:

There are a number of causes that are the reason behind child obesity. The main cause of childhood obesity is unhealthy lifestyle and it’s mostly linked with parental negligence. Other factors that are included in child obesity causes are:

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Genetic factors
  • Certain medical conditions
  • Hormonal problems etc.

Side effects:

Overweight increases the risks of following health disorders in children:

  • Breathing troubles or asthma
  • Heart disease
  • Heart attack
  • Diabetes
  • Insomnia
  • High blood pressure
  • Menstrual problems in girls
  • Gallstones
  • Metabolic syndrome


Treatment of child obesity depends on children’s age, growth or family history. Your doctor will recommend you the exact treatment after analyzing your child’s medical condition and response to the treatment.

Safety Instructions:

To tackle with the issue before it may damage your child’s health badly you must keep following instructions in mind:

  1. Maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  2. Drink water in abundance.
  3. Make children’s favorite dish healthier.
  4. Instruct children how to avoid unhealthy eating.
  5. Take in healthy snacks.
  6. Follow a healthy diet.
  7. Make fruits and vegetables an essential part of your daily diet.

Almost half of the world’s population consists of women. With men being the nucleus of many societies, women’s health is not a much highlighted phenomenon.

In the low income, underdeveloped countries, women still lack basic health provisions.

In this article, we are going to cover five women health issues that need the world’s immediate attention and specially women who may suffer due to lack of knowledge about their health issues.

  1. Breast Cancer:

Breast cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the breast. This type of cancer occurs dominantly in women. It can affect men very rarely.

The breast consists of lobules- the cells that produce milk, ducts-the tubes that carry milk and connective tissues that give the structure to the breast.

Breast cancer usually affects the lobules (invasive lobular carcinoma) and the ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma).

Both these types of cancers can spread out of the breast through blood vessels.

The early signs of breast cancer include lumpy growth in the breast or armpit.

In case of any abnormal growth you feel around the breast, immediately consult a doctor because early diagnosis increases the chance of getting cured.

  1. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a condition in which follicles form in the ovaries due to which women may face heavy menstrual bleeding or irregular menstruation.

The ovaries fail to produce eggs timely that can lead to problems in conceiving.

The male hormone gets increased in the woman’s body leaving behind a condition called hirsutism in which women may have heavy facial hair growth or hair growth on body parts where usually there is no hair such as neck or belly.

  1. Cervical cancer:

Cervical cancer is the cancer that occurs in the cervix cell. Cervix is the uterine opening that connects to the vagina.

The cancer occurs due to infection of a bacterial strain named human papillomavirus (HPV).

HPV usually doesn’t harm the humans due to the immune response of the body. However, an HPV may persist for years in a female cervix ultimately causing the cervical cells to grow abnormally.

Screening and vaccination are the only ways to prevent this rapidly growing disease.

  1. Endometriosis:

Endometriosis is a painful condition in which tissues similar to the uterine lining grow outside the uterus in areas such as fallopian tubes, ovaries or the pelvis.

These tissues act just the same way as the endometrium does.

It thickens with the menstrual cycle and breaks down on the onset of periods causing bleeding, but since there is no space of bleeding, the woman may face severe pain in the pelvic area while on menstruation.

  1. Postpartum depression:

Commonly known as PPD, it is a condition that develops after childbirth in women. Postpartum depression leads to extreme mood swings where the woman may get to the level of suicide or harming her child.

Immediate medical attention is required in case there’s a behavioral shift in the new mother.


Women’s health may not be a mainstream topic, but it is important to take care of due to the role women have to play and to maintain their wellbeing.

Aging is the process of getting old and the term is usually used for humans and animals.

In humans, as they grow older, many bodily changes occur. Some of these changes are graying of hair or occurrence of wrinkles on the skin.

These are the changes you can spot out only by seeing someone, but there are internal changes that occur in the human bodies as they grow old.

For many people, these changes are overwhelming and they lose their motivation to maintain a healthy body.

In this article, we will discuss some of the bodily alterations that occur during the aging process and how to cope up with them.

Appearance changes:

  • Hair changes:

With a body getting old, the first thing that starts changing is the hair. Men and women both encounter this change.

From greying to baldness, the hair texture of a growing human can see many phases.

Aging naturally lessens the hair pigment, causing them to turn grey.

Men can start showing balding signs by the age of 30.

  • Skin changes:

A supple, glowing skin can turn into a dull, wrinkled one as one ages. The epidermis start thinning, leaving a sagging, paler skin (loss of melanocytes) behind.

  • Weight gain/loss:

With changing organ function, most of the aging population either gains or loses weight.

This weight gain/loss is usually a side effect of other health conditions such as diabetes.

  • Dental problems:

Loosening gums and decaying teeth are another physical problem that comes with aging.

The teeth start losing their original form.

Many people can start having problems with bad breath with decaying teeth.

Organ changes:

  • Cardiovascular activity:

Cardiovascular activity can be affected due to thickening of the veins and arteries.

With aging and an obese body, the chances of cardiac arrest increase.

A healthy lifestyle with moderate workout and low fat food can result in better heart life.

  • Loss of vision:

Aging comes with a negative effect on the eyesight. Old people can develop eye problems such as cataract and glaucoma.

Other than these diseases, the most common aging effect on the eyes is myopia that can develop after 40 in most of the people.

  • Urinary Bladder issues:

The aging body loses muscle elasticity. This affects the internal organs as well. Urinary bladder is one of those organs which are affected by old age.

Many people may experience urinary incontinence or in some cases, a renal dysfunction can cause urinary retention as well.

  • Menopause:

Specific to women, menopause is the end of menstruation in women. Usually occurs after 50 years, menopause comes with a lot of hormonal and reproductive problems in the women.


Aging is a natural process that cannot be stopped. However, taking care of the body can slow down the aging process.

Most of the appearance issues can be fixed by adopting cosmetic approaches such as dental treatments and hair transplants.

The organ problems can be minimized by adopting a healthy lifestyle and staying active.

Intake of vitamins and proper hydration can have a positive impact on an aging body. However, if there’s a need to see a doctor, do it immediately.


Genetics is a branch of biology that deals with heredity. Heredity is the ability of no transmitting traits from one generation to the next generation. The characteristics are usually physical such as the eye color, skin color or height.

In biological terms, genetics is the study of genes. Now what is a gene? A gene is a molecule of DNA that contains genetic information. Let’s get into the detailed mechanism of genetic inheritance.


Genes are molecules stored in the nucleus of every human cell. They are present on a thread-like structure called chromosome. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes present in each nucleus of a human cell.

One set of 23 chromosomes comes from the mother while the other 23 come from the father’s side.

All the genes that transfer from the parents to the offspring are known as genotypes of a species.

The genes on each set of chromosomes are known as alleles and they interact with each other to pass on biological traits.

These alleles can interact in the following five patterns known as patterns of inheritance for genetic diseases:

  1. Autosomal Dominant:

When this type of inheritance pattern occurs, the disease is transmitted to the next generation. At least one parent has the dominant allele for the disease.

  1. Autosomal Recessive:

When this type of inheritance pattern occurs, both the parents are carriers for a disease, but it is not necessarily transmitted to the next generation.

  1. X-Linked Dominant:

In this type of inheritance pattern, female children are more likely to inherit a genetic disorder.

  1. X-Linked Recessive:

This inheritance pattern enhances the chance of a male child to inherit a genetic disorder.

  1. Mitochondrial:

Both males and females get affected by a genetic disorder, but the next generation inherits the disease from the mother’s alleles.

The genetic disorders that occur due to these patterns will be discussed later.

Subdivisions of genetics:

There are three major subdivisions of genetics namely:

  1. Transmission genetics:

This subdivision of genetics deals with the mechanism of how genes are transmitted from one generation to the next.

  1. Molecular genetics:

It is the study of DNA molecules and their expression in different organisms.

  1. Population genetics:

It is the study of genetic differences within a population and among populations.

Genetic disorders:

The chromosomal abnormalities can lead to genetic disorders such as:

  1. Thalassemia:

It is a condition in which a person has a limited capacity of producing hemoglobin thus, the oxygen level of the patient’s remains low.

  1. Von Willebrand Disease:

In this genetic disorder, the patient’s blood does not clot properly. Bleeding can take more than usual time to stop.

This disease is transmitted from an affected parent and can go unnoticed if a major bruising/bleeding episode doesn’t occur.

  1. Down syndrome:

It is a hereditary condition in which the 21st chromosomal pair is copied twice in each body cell of the offspring or in some cells of the patient’s body.

It is characterized by developmental delays in the patient.

There are many other genetic diseases as well that occur due to chromosomal abnormalities.

Headache is characterized by the pain in any part of the head. It can be in a specific part or radiate across the head. A headache may be as a dull or a sharp throbbing. Sometimes the muscles or nerves tighten which can cause sudden headache and fuss.


Headache may occur at any age .It is more common in teen agers and is complicated with migraine which triggers in late 30s.


Some of the most commonly found symptoms are as under:

  1. Dull pain in head region is the primary or initial symptom of headache which may be indicated by piercing pain.

  2. It is accompanied by stressed shoulders, forehead and nerve muscles.

3. It may include a sensation of tenderness on the scalp, shoulders and back.


         Headache has two common types:

1. Tension headache.

2. Cluster headache.

         Migraine includes severe tension headaches and is lessened as the days pass.


The causes of headache include stress, hormonal deformities or variations, rigorous exercise, lack of enough sleep or increased sleeping routine, dehydration, smoking and consumption of alcohol. It may also include lacking proper meals and extra sight works. High blood pressure can also lead to a sort of headache. Anxiety is one of the major causes which hit the pain.


High sugar containing food can cause headache. Fasting and low blood sugar level can also lead to mild headache.


Headache can be avoided by regular and careful exercise, having proper meals at proper times, ensuring enough sleep and intake of plenty of water. One should avoid persistent focus and exposure to bright lights. These precautions are all weather useful. However proper medication is the most recommended thing.


  1. Getting some rest can help with headaches.
  2. The use of anti- inflammatory drugs can alleviate the pain.
  • Pain killers like Panadol and Aspirin can help someone to cope with a headache.
  • Massage can distress and relieve the pain.
  • Hydration can also lessen the headache.

If none of the treatments work, one should seek doctor’s advice and follow his instructions for further tests or treatments.

There is always one main part of the machinery on which the complete machine is based upon. Without that one specific part, that machine is totally useless.

For example, in computers that part is the Central Processing unit (CPU). Similarly, in the human body that part is called Brain.

It is the central processing unit of our body and it controls all the functions of our body single handedly.

Human brain controls two kinds of actions.

  1. Voluntary
  2. Involuntary

Voluntary actions include processes like moving your hands or thinking about something or writing something etc.

Involuntary actions are like breathing, sneezing etc.

All of these actions get their message from the brain to take place and without the go ahead from Brain, it is not possible.

Parts of Human Brain

Human Brain consists of 3 parts basically.

  1. Fore brain
  2. Midbrain
  3. Hindbrain

Basic Functions of Brain

  1. Memory
  2. Breathing
  3. Intelligence
  4. Learning
  5. Sense
  6. Energy
  7. Thinking
  8. Performance of several actions

Nervous System:

The human brain and Nervous system are so closely interlinked that it is almost impossible to distinguish them from each other or differentiate them.

Nervous system of human beings depends upon Neurons.

Human brain consists of billions of neurons and they carry information from the brain to other parts of the body to perform several different functions.

Sensory neurons are basically the messengers that carry information of a task from the brain to the desired place of action.

What Are The Roles Of Brain And Nervous System In Children

At a young age the brain and Nervous system of the kids is also at developing stage and apart from the exceptions of Child Prodigies their brain is still growing and trying to reach ultimate growth.

The brain at that stage of life is quite adaptive to learning new things and is actually at the stage of reception.

Diseases Of Brain And Nervous System

There are several different diseases that can be related to the brain and our nervous system and some of them are as under.

  1. Epilepsy
  2. Migraine
  3. Headache
  4. Head injury
  5. Concussion
  6. Mental illness
  7. Hallucinations
  8. Anxiety
  9. Depression
  10.  Several phobias

These are few of the major issues related to our nervous system and brain.

Importance Of Diet

It is often said that a man is what he eats. This can actually be true for the health of our brain and our nervous system.

There are several things that if added to our diet can give a boost to our Brain and their deficiency can cause some real issues to the general health and especially the condition of the brain of humans.

Some of the necessary things for intake are as under:

  1. Walnuts
  2. Almonds
  3. Fish Oil
  4. Healthy fats
  5. Olive oil
  6. Vitamin D and K

All in all, we can say that the function of the brain and our nervous system is to control everything that goes in the body but it is also very important to take proper care of these two interlinked entities and if that is not the case with them then life would never be the same again for that person.