Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates sugars formed by carbohydrates in the body. Insulin helps in using the sugars in energy formation. The dysfunctioning of insulin can lead to many problems in the body among which Diabetes tops the list.

In this article, we will cover the following questions about insulin:

  • What happens when the blood insulin level is too high?
  • What happens when the blood insulin level is too low?
  • What is insulin resistance?
  • In which forms medicinal insulin is available?
  • Who should take insulin as a treatment option?
  1. What happens when the blood insulin level is too high?

The condition in which blood insulin level is too high than the normal range is known as hyperinsulinemia. It occurs when the pancreas secrete too much insulin to cope up with the mechanism of reducing blood sugar.

The leading causes of hyperinsulinemia are two other conditions known as insulinoma, and nesidioblastosis. The first one is the tumor of pancreatic cells while the latter is excessive insulin producing cells in the pancreas.

Hyperinsulinemia is not treated on its own, but the underlying diseases are treated if a patient is diagnosed with hyperinsulinemia.

  1. What happens when the blood insulin level is too low?

Low blood insulin level causes high blood sugar level. The primary function of insulin is to make the cells absorb sugar. When insulin is not enough in the bloodstream, this function is disrupted leaving behind too much sugar in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia).

The reason behind low insulin level is either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by lack of insulin production by the pancreas while type 2 diabetes is characterized by the production of insulin that doesn’t perform its function of absorption of sugar properly.

  1. What is insulin resistance?

Insulin resistance is the condition in which the body cells do not respond well to insulin. They do not convert the blood sugar into energy. The people who are at high risk of insulin resistance are those who are obese (a waist size of 40 inches for men, and 35 inches for women) or have hypertension.


The diseases caused by insulin resistance include Diabetes type 2 as discussed above, gestational diabetes which is a condition present in some pregnant women, and pre diabetes which is a stage of blood sugar level that cannot be tagged as diabetes, but higher than the desired blood sugar level.

  1. In which forms medicinal insulin is available?

The insulin is usually available in injection form. However, the medicinal insulin has four categories based on the time of their effectiveness. These categories are rapid-action insulin(starts working in 15 minutes after administration), short acting insulin (starts working after 30 minutes of administration), intermediate acting (starts working in 2 to 4 hours after administration), slow acting insulin (works after several hours of administration).

  1. Who should take insulin as a treatment option?

Almost all the type 1 diabetes patients need to take insulin as a treatment option. Those patients of type 2 diabetes for whom other medicines stop working, are usually prescribed with medicinal insulin.