Down syndrome is a state in which a baby is born with an additional copy of their 21st chromosomes. Its other name is trisomy 21. In this case, a child’s bodily and mental evolution detains and disorders. Down syndrome differs in severity among individuals, causing permanent intellectual disability and developmental interruptions.

A lot of disorders are for a lifetime, and they also can reduce life-span. However, people with Down syndrome can live in good physical condition and fulfilling lives. Modern medical advances provide many opportunities to control the challenges of this condition.

In this article, we will discuss the following things regarding Down syndrome.

1. What are the types of Down syndrome?

2. What are the symptoms of Down syndrome?

3. How to treat Down syndrome people?

4. What complications do they have?

What are the types of Down syndrome?

There are three types of Down syndrome.

●    Trisomy 21- Trisomy 21 means that there is an extra copy of a chromosome in every cell. This is the most ordinary form of Down syndrome. Around 95% of the time, Down syndrome is owing to trisomy 21. During the development of an abnormal cell division, trisomy 21 is caused.

●    Mosaic Down syndrome- It occurs when a baby is born with an extra chromosome in some but not all of the cells. After fertilization, these abnormal cells are caused by an abnormal cell division. Mosaic Down syndrome acts to have fewer symptoms as compared to Trisomy 21.

●    Translocation Down syndrome- There are a total of 46 chromosomes. Children have only an additional part of chromosome 21. But, in this kind of Down syndrome, one of them has an extra piece of chromosome 21 attached.

What are the symptoms of Down syndrome?

           Though chances of Down syndrome in a baby can be detected or estimated by the screening during pregnancy, you will not experience any indication of carrying a baby with Down syndrome.

           At birth, babies with Down syndrome habitually have definite characteristics indications, including:

● Leveled facial features

● Small head and ears

● Short neck

● Bulging tongue

● Eyes that tilt upward

● irregularly shaped ears

● Short height

● Poor muscle tone

A child could have mental disorders and psychological issues in which a child could have:

● Hasty, emotional, or impulsive behavior

● Poor sense/poor judgment

● Short awareness range

● Learning capacity would be slow

How to treat Down syndrome people?

People with Down syndrome can have physical difficulties, as well as intellectual disabilities. Every individual born with Down syndrome is different and special. Down syndrome cannot be treated. Premature treatment programs can help develop skills. They may include occupational, physical, speech, and/or educational therapy. Many people with Down syndrome treated carefully can prevail in productive lives.

What complications do they have?

People with Down syndrome may have the following problems:

  • Immune disorders
  • Obesity
  • Leukemia
  • Dementia
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) defects
  • Sleep apnea
  • Spinal problems
  • Heart defects
  • Ear infections
  • Vision problems
  • Endocrine problems